APHIS Environmental Assessments

The WS program uses an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management (IWDM) approach (WS Directive 2.1051), in which a combination of methods may be used or recommended concurrently or sequentially to reduce wildlife damage. These methods may include non-lethal techniques like alteration of cultural practices, habitat management, repellents, frightening devices, and physical exclusion to prevent or reduce damage. The reduction of wildlife damage may also require removal of individual animals, reduction in local animal populations, or elimination of non-native species through lethal means.

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