Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, North DakotaSouth Dakota, Kansas
Michigan is represented separately.


Deer Population and Property Damage, City of Shaker Heights

In winter 2016/2017 and 2017/2018, the City began a deer reduction program by Shaker Heights Police Department trained marksmen in response to safety, health, and economic concerns about an overabundance of deer in the city. If your property has been damaged by deer, you may submit a Deer Damage Report. There is also a new 2018 Deer Survey to determine the level of control needed to address the number of deer in our city.

Welcome to the Clifton Deer Fertility Control Pilot Program, 2018

This 5 year Pilot Program concluded its first year field operations in early December 2015, its second year of field operations in January 2017, and its third year of field operations in January 2018.

For communities thinking about a fertility control program, we offer this outline of considerations based on our experience.

Cincinnati Parks- Wildlife Management & Trail Closures, History of the Deer Management Program, 2018

Since the winter of 2007, the Cincinnati Park Board has been working to control the deer population that has decimated our native forest plant species. Though the population levels are recommended to be 15 – 20 deer per square mile, the Mt. Airy Forest population had reached 97 deer per square mile, and in California Woods 103 deer per square mile. Stanbery Park, Alms Park, Ault Park, and Magrish Preserve also have significant over population of deer.

Cincinnati to Continue Use of Bow Hunters to Cull Park Deer, USNews, May 31, 2017

Cincinnati says it plans to continue the use of bow hunters to cull deer from the city’s parks

Cleveland Metroparks Deer Management Program, 2019

Cleveland Metroparks will be continuing its deer management program to reduce deer population and maintain a balanced ecosystem

2018-2019 Deer Management Plan and Request for Deer Damage Control Permit, Toledo Metroparks, Nov 11, 2018

Wildlife species exhibiting one or more of the above characteristics pose an increased risk of exceeding their biological, cultural, and/or ecological carrying capacities and may pose significant threats to native ecosystems including:
a) Excessive direct predation on desired native plant and/or animal species
b) Loss of habitat for desired plant and/or animal species, especially those that are rare, threatened or endangered
c)Spread of wildlife diseases associated with high population densities

2017‐2018 Deer Management Plan and Request for Deer Damage Control Permit, Toledo Metroparks, Nov 21, 2017

Deer are generalist herbivores, consuming a wide range of woody and herbaceous plant species and plant parts with specific dietary preferences varying by season and habitat (USDA 2014). Deer have an innate ability to preferentially select plants and plant parts that provide the greatest nutritional value for the least
physiological cost. An individual deer typically consumes three percent of its body weight per day, thus a single 200-pound adult deer consumes roughly 6 pounds of vegetation each day. In addition to impacts to native plant species and communities, deer overabundance has
been found to negatively impact other native wildlife species including birds, small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and arthropods by changing food availability, cover from predators, and microhabitats. For example, deCalesta (1997) found that in managed Pennsylvania forests with high deer population densities, species richness and abundance of intermediate canopy-nesting birds (those nesting in the mid-tree canopy) declined by 37% and 27%, respectively. Additionally, five species of birds disappeared from forests when deer densities reached 38 deer per mile and another two species were lost when deer densities reached 64 deer per mile. Indirect effects of deer overabundance include loss of forest leaf litter, compaction of soils, and changes in nutrient cycling which are known to affect densities of arthropods both above- and below-ground (Shelton et al. 2014). All of these impacts to plant and animal communities, both direct and indirect, are known to occur at deer population densities well below their biological carrying capacity. Thus there is a need to
manage deer populations to mitigate these effects even when there are no signs that the deer population itself is under ecological stress.

2016‐2017 Deer Management Plan and Request for Deer Damage Control Permit, Toledo Metroparks, Dec 09, 2016

Wildlife species exhibiting one or of these characteristics pose an increased risk of exceeding their biological, cultural, and/or ecological carrying capacities and may pose significant threats to native ecosystems:

      a) Excessive direct predation on desired native plant and/or animal species
      b) Loss of habitat for desired plant and/or animal species,
      c) Spread of wildlife diseases

Sharpshooters kill 350 deer in Ohio national park’s first cull, NBC4i.com, April 8, 2016

BRECKSVILLE, OH (AP) — Sharpshooters in a northeast Ohio national park have killed 350 white-tailed deer in what officials are calling a successful first deer cull. Officials said Thursday the deer reduction occurred on 16 nights from January 11 to March 7 in Cuyahoga Valley National Park. A 2013 estimate indicated that the 33,000-acre park near Brecksville had about 1,700 deer. Prior to the cull, there was about 40 deer per square mile. Officials say they hope to cut that number in half. The reduction plan calls for shooting an additional 350 deer annually for the next three winters and 175 deer in the fifth year.

ODNR Offers Special Deer Hunts on Three State Nature Preserves, ODNR, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Aug 25. 2015

Increased deer populations can seriously affect native plant communities, and for this reason, the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) will coordinate special deer hunts at three state nature preserves to help preserve the rare and protected plants that grow on these properties. This year, Goll Woods in Fulton County, Lawrence Woods in Hardin County and Lake Katharine in Jackson County, will offer opportunities for hunters to be granted access to hunt.

Deer Management, Toledo Area Metroparks, 2016

In the third year of an ongoing deer management program, Metroparks will work with a federal agency this winter to reduce the number of deer in the parks. Decades of growing deer population has resulted in habitat destruction caused by deer.
The goal of the deer management program is to sustain a healthy number of deer in balance with other plant and animal species.

The park district has entered into an agreement with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) that provides expertise to resolve wildlife conflicts. The agreement calls for marksmen from APHIS Wildlife Services to work with Ohio Department of Natural Resources Division of Wildlife officials, along with Metroparks rangers and resource management staff, in Wildwood Preserve and Oak Openings Preserve after park hours in January, February and March to reduce the deer herd.

Cayuga Valley National Park, Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Dec 2014

Cuyahoga Valley National Park has been taking steps toward addressing the issues related to high deer populations and overbrowsing since the early 1990s. In 1993 a deer management task force was established to identify the nature and extent of problems caused by deer and to recommend appropriate solutions. The task force included a representative from the park (at that time Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area), along with 11 representatives from six local municipalities and townships, both municipal park districts (Cleveland Metroparks and Summit Metro Parks, formerly Metro Parks, Serving Summit County), the Ohio Farm Bureau, and the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR). The task force studied the issue of the deer population within a 178-square-mile area of concern that was centered on the park and included public and private lands. Its recommendations, which were first presented to Cuyahoga Valley Communities Council in 1996 (NPS 2002d), consisted of four methods of deer population control:

  • Public sport hunting in areas where legal, practical, feasible, and safe.
  • Specially controlled hunting on isolated land areas of greater than 5 acres.
  • Sharpshooting in areas not suitable for public sport hunting or specially controlled hunting.
  • Capture/euthanasia in developed areas where other methods are not practical or safe (NPS 1997a).


We propose to reduce the deer population in the Clifton Parks through surgical sterilization of female deer using a procedure known as an ovariectomy (the removal of the ovaries). The procedure, which is done in the field and takes less than 20 minutes, is similar to, but less invasive than, typical spay surgeries used to sterilize domestic dogs and cats (which involve a complete hysterectomy).

Summit Metropark Deer Management

Regionally and throughout the state, changes in habitat and the elimination of natural predators have allowed deer herds to grow to unnatural densities, threatening biodiversity. In some areas, deer densities have been documented at more than 200 per square mile. Densities that exceed 20 per square mile are associated with threats to biodiversity. Summit Metro Parks will allow hunting by bow and arrow or crossbow in more than 20 selected areas by permit this fall.

Ohio Environmental Assessment, US APHIS, June 2009

The purpose of this EA is to address and evaluate the potential impacts to the human environment from alternatives for WS involvement in white-tailed deer (deer) damage management in Ohio. The proposed program is intended to reduce damage and conflicts associated with white-tailed deer impacts on agricultural resources, urban/suburban landscaping, property, natural resources, deer-vehicle and deer-aircraft collisions; risks to human health and safety; and concerns about the spread of disease among wildlife and livestock.
The alteration and degradation of habitat from over-browsing by deer can have a detrimental effect on deer herd health and may displace other wildlife communities (e.g., neotropical migrant songbirds and small mammals) that depend upon the understory vegetative habitat destroyed by deer browsing.

New Albany, OH, Urban Deer Management

The Deer Management Program was developed in 2004 as a result of the rising number of car-deer crashes in the community as well as requests from local landowners who were experiencing landscape damage caused by overgrazing. Landowners can permit hunting on their land in New Albany. For the land to be eligible for the Urban Deer Management Program, the landowner must sign a Hold Harmless Agreement and the area to be hunted must be approved by the police department and be given a hunting zone number. Hunting in New Albany is prohibited unless the hunter and the land are part of the Urban Deer Management Program.

Deer Management, Cleveland Metropark, Current Issues

Cleveland Metroparks Natural Resources staff have been studying and monitoring the deer population in the Park District since the early 1980s. Field surveys demonstrated a rapid decline in interior forest plant communities resulting from increased deer densities at the local landscape level by the late 1980’s. After exploring practical options for reducing deer populations, culling was chosen.
From 2001 to 2006 nearly $500,000 was spent to investigate the efficacy of immunocontraception as an alternative means of controlling deer populations. Cleveland Metroparks concluded, as have other recent studies, that immunocontraception did result in decreased pregnancies. However, the free-ranging nature of the deer herd in the region where both immigration and emigration take place make it difficult to deliver the contraceptive to a large number of deer.

2015 – 2016 City of Newark Urban Deer Hunting Program

Bowhunter applications for the 2015-2016, City of Newark Urban Deer Hunting. Property owners who wish to register their property with the City of Newark may also pick up an application and information packet at the Newark Division of Police.

Deer Management, Solon, OH Deer Management

The projected 2011 count of deer in Solon is 1069. This increase is a 54% increase over the 2010 count of 694 and is explained in the Solon Deer Management Plan. This plan explains the methods being promoted by the City to manage its deer population. The City has not yet been authorized by Council to implement this plan.

Deer Management Plan, City of Solon

Our comprehensive deer management plan includes both lethal and non-lethal methods in dealing with the deer population. Most wildlife experts suggest that the proper density level for deer is 20 – 25 deer per square mile in a rural setting. This ratio should be closer to 10 – 15 in a densely populated, suburban setting. Based on local information and our land area, our number should be managed between 206 – 309 total deer city wide. That being said we believe that we can practically target that number between 300 – 400.

Urban Deer Hunting Program 2015-2016, City Of Gahanna

Since its inception in 1991, the Urban Deer Hunting Program has been successful in lowering the number of car versus deer crashes, as well as reducing the amount of property and landscape damage within the city limits. Every year the Urban Deer Hunting Program looks for experienced bow hunters to assist in continuing the success of the program.

Deer Management Program, Granville, Oh

The deer management program includes public education to inform Granville-area residents on what can be done to make the Village habitat less attractive for the deer, to reduce the damage to landscaping and other plantings, and to minimize the other negative impacts of the deer. The deer management program also allows the limited hunting of deer within the Village.

Deer and Other Nuissance Animals, Mentor, Oh

Deer are classified as nuisance animals. It is unlawful to feed the deer in Mentor. Their overpopulation has resulted in a substantial increase in deer/vehicle accidents, as well as the growing destruction of plants and trees. Nuissance reporting, encounter surveys


2017 State Park Deer Reduction Results, Indiana State Parks, April 6, 2018 The year 2017 marked the 24th anniversary of deer reductions in Indiana State Parks. The first reduction hunt was held in 1993 as an effort to mitigate damage to vegetation and unique habitat by an overpopulation of white-tailed deer in Brown County State Park.
As noted in previous reports, browse lines and emaciated deer are no longer a problem in state parks. The extreme overabundance issues of the 1990s have been corrected. However, less-obvious damage persists throughout the parks as a legacy of decades of chronic deer herbivory. In some areas, unpalatable plant species such as pawpaw and spicebush are overrepresented in the understory. In addition to competing with other fauna for limited resources within park boundaries, deer continue to affect rare, threatened and endangered flora as well as valuable habitat such as oak forests. Other impacts included compromised understory structure for ground- and shrub-nesting songbirds.

2018 Deer Population Control, Forest Preserves of Winnebago County

During the months of January, February and March 2018, licensed staff will be at multiple preserves participating in the 2018 deer reduction program. Staff will be sharp shooting deer in the preserves Monday through Thursday in the evening hours.

Forest Preserve District of Kane County 2016/17: Deer Management Program Controlled Archery Component, 2016

Hunting is a commonly used and effective deer management tool in rural areas, and has been used effectively in some suburban areas. Controlled hunts during the established hunting season can safely and successfully reduce deer densities in localized areas, under the proper conditions. In 2016/17, controlled archery hunting will be implemented at three sites with elevated deer densities and documented impacts to the ecosystem.

Deer Management , Illinois Dept of Natural Resources

  • Revising Illinois Deer Management Objectives, Feb 13, 2014The JTF recommended that the rate of deer/vehicle accidents (number of accidents divided by the amount of vehicular traffic miles driven) be used as the objective by which to judge the success or failure of deer management programs.

2015/16 Deer Management Program Controlled Archery Component, Forest Preserve District of Kane County, 2015

In 2015/16 controlled archery hunting will be implemented at three sites with elevated deer densities and documented impacts to the ecosystem.

Approved Hidden Valley Lake 2014/2015 Deer Cull Program, HVL POA, 2014

A. Hunting season will begin in conjunction with the State season on October 1, 2014 and we will cull 85 deer.
B. HVL will schedule a flyover with the first snow fall to count the remaining deer. If the fly over concludes that the remaining deer herd exceeds 120 deer, the HVL POA shall apply for a special IDNR Fish and Wildlife Permit to extend the culling season and reduce the herd to a maximum of 100 deer and to request certain
exceptions to the standard bow hunting regulations.
C. If permission is granted by more than three adjoining, vacant lot property owners, permission may be granted by Community Manager to cull deer on the property in two day blocks. Signs must be clearly displayed.D. One antlered deer may be taken by each hunter during the 2014 cull season provided that hunter has culled at least 2 non-antlered deer.


An overabundance of white-tailed deer can adversely impact plant and animal resources, cause a decline in biological diversity in natural areas, ecologically sensitive areas and the surrounding landscape, cause damage to agricultural crops, ornamentals and orchards, and increase the risk of deer-vehicle accidents. Excessive browsing caused by an overabundance of deer can result in: 1) reduced diversity of woody and herbaceous plants or natural communities, 2) modified vertical structure in the forest understory, 3) extirpation of palatable plant species, 4) reduced reproductive potential in rare plants, 5) negative impacts to sympatric fauna that require the forest understory for forage, nesting and cover , and/or 6) a decline in deer herd health


State funding to fight chronic wasting disease tops $1 million, MN House of Representatives, Jan 15, 2019

An estimated $1.3 million was spent from DNR Fish and Game funds in 2018 on surveillance (testing and assessments) and prohibitions against carcass transportation, feeding, and attractants in an effort to control the spread of the disease. But that figure would be insufficient in the face of further outbreaks in the state.
Nor does that figure include the cost of time spent by enforcement personnel investigating CWD-related complaints – easily accounting for additional expenditures in excess of $200,000 per year.
State efforts are currently focused on 17 counties in central and southeast Minnesota, with funding for the CWD response provided entirely through hunting and fishing license revenues.

A plan for Minnesota’s deer

Minnesota’s White-tailed Deer Management Plan will guide deer management from 2019-2028. The Plan benefits Minnesotans by outlining strategic direction, DNR responsibilities and new ways for the agency, citizens and stakeholders to address deer management. The Plan’s eight major goals support a strategic direction that focuses on:
1.Communication, information sharing, public involvement
2.Deer stakeholder satisfaction
3.Population management, monitoring, research
4.Healthy deer
5.Healthy habitat
6.Impacts of deer on other resources
7.Deer management funding
8.Continuous improvement of deer management

Be part of Minnesota’s deer planning process, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, April 9, 2018

You can find the plan and supplementary information on our deer management plan webpage. The executive summary will provide a quick overview of the plan, followed by more detail in the plan itself. A couple things to note, this is a strategic plan so it has been designed to describe a long-term vision and provide high-level direction for management decisions over the next 10 years.

Deer Population Goals: Southeast Minnesota 2014

In 2013, Minnesota DNR initiated a public process to revisit deer population goals in Southeast Minnesota. The new process emphasized collection of public input (mail surveys, online questionnaires and public meetings) prior to convening stakeholder advisory teams selected to represent the diversity of perspectives related to deer management.
A summary of comments was also published.

Duluth City Code: CHAPTER 6. ANIMALS AND FOWL, Duluth, MN, 1999

The city council finds that the peace and safety of the community, and the health of the forest, are threatened by the overabundance of wild deer within the city. Therefore, thepopu lation of wild deer must be regulated and managed. The method for the regulation shall be an annual harvesting of wild deer by use of bow and arrow.

BURNSVILLE DEER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 2015-2016 Program Year Annual Report, City of Burnsville, MN

The Program approved two primary population control strategies: archery hunting and sharpshooting. Based on the estimated March 2015 aerial deer counts and projected population for November 2015 (as presented in the 2014-2015 Annual Report), a minimum of 91 deer and maximum of 144 deer were recommended to be removed through a combination of these methods during the fall/winter 2015-2016.

Deer Management, Burnsville, MN, 2003

Deer management is a long-term commitment. Since humans have replaced the whitetails’ natural predators with the urban environment, it is left to humans to manage their population densities.

  • Deer Management Program, City of BurnsvilleSharpshooters from the Burnsville Police Department will conduct deer removals periodically at the following parks from December through the end of March. Parks will be open for normal activities, except on afternoons/evenings when deer removals are planned. When deer removals are planned, the park will be closed from 2 p.m. until sunrise the following morning. The City will post signs at all of the park’s designated public access points to notify park users of the closure. Due to uncertain weather conditions, this list will not be updated until a few hours prior to park closure.
  • Deer Observations

City of Cook Bow Hunt: 2014 City of Cook Special Archery Deer Hunt

The City of Cook will implement its’ 2nd archery deer hunt for 2014. Focus will be antlerless deer harvest to continue reduction of the local population

Deer Management- Brookline Center, MN

The City will utilize bow hunters to reduce the number of deer in each management district to the goal of 15-20 deer per square mile. By the end of five years, the initial reduction period, it is projected that the deer population will be to a level that requires maintenance rather than aggressive reduction. The City will strongly encourage use of non-lethal methods to address deer damage but recognizes that harvesting of deer will be necessary to maintain the population goal.

2013 Deer Control Plan – Little Canada, MN

Deer Hunt Program, City of Red Wing, MN

In response to deer complaints relating to flower and shrub destruction and traffic safety, the City of Red Wing established an archery deer hunting program in the 1990’s. The program implemented deer hunting within areas previously closed to all hunting. In 1998, through the use of Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Bonus Permits, the program was extended to allow hunters to harvest up to five deer each.


2018 State Park Deer Reduction Results, Resource Management & Research Report, Indiana State Parks, May 13, 2019

The year 2018 marked the 25th anniversary of deer reductions in Indiana State Parks. The first reduction hunt was held in 1993 as an effort to mitigate damage to vegetation and unique habitat by an overpopulation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Brown County State Park. Multiple parks have hosted deer reduction hunts annually since 1995 and have included up to 21 parks and one natural area per year. The decision to start reductions at individual parks has been based on scientific vegetation monitoring. Decisions to continue reductions at individual parks are made annually using harvest data and consideration of occurrences of rare, threatened, and endangered flora that could be affected by excessive browsing by deer. In 2018, 5,383 hunter efforts were used to assist 17 parks, one recreation area, and one natural area. The result was a harvest of 1,302 deer. Daily standby drawings were held at three parks. Such drawings are conducted from time to time to reduce the impact of originally drawn hunters not showing up or not returning on the second day of each hunt. The 2018 harvest yielded a mean harvest per effort of 0.26, which is higher than the program target of 0.22-0.20.

Deer reduction hunts scheduled at 18 sites, IN.gov, July 7, 2016

The DNR Division of State Parks is seeking volunteer hunters to participate in managed deer reduction hunts at 18 locations later this year. For more than 20 years, volunteer hunters have assisted the Division of State Parks in managing deer populations on those properties. The reduction hunts are carried out exclusively to achieve an ecological objective – to ensure balanced and healthy natural communities for all plants and wildlife within park boundaries.

Bloomington Parks and Recreation Hosts Deer Management Information Panel, Bloomington, IN, Aug 1,2017

“We as a parks and recreation department are responsible for managing the properties in our care to ensure all their benefits are here for future generations,” said Paula McDevitt, Administrator of the Bloomington Parks and Recreation Department. “The goal of any wildlife management effort is to reduce the browse pressure on understory plant species and seedling trees to the point these species are able to recover.

Common Ground: Toward Balance and Stewardship — Recommendations of the Joint City of Bloomington-Monroe County Deer Task Force (PDF 20.05 MB), Oct 2012

Local food production is a key component of the community’s commitment to food security. Local food reduces food miles traveled and fosters the provision of affordable, healthy food for all. Numerous local gardeners participate in gleaning and “plant‐a‐row” initiatives in an effort to help feed area hungry. We have made changes to our land use laws, established community gardens and orchards and worked to support the work of local farmers. Despite these advances, a number of City residents advise that their ability to grow their own food is compromised by an overabundance of deer within City limits. That’s not entirely surprising: on average, a deer will consume between 4.5 and 11 pounds of forage per day.


Some say that hunting and other lethal means actually increases the reproductive rates
of deer. That is,when deer are culled, there are fewer deer and those who are left will increase their reproduction to compensate for fewer deer.
This is not an accurate representation. Deer are density‐dependent animals. As their population approaches biological carrying capacity, their reproduction begins to drop off. This is because the habitat becomes less productive. This often‐cited “rebound effect” occurs when deer move from a situation of being at, or above biological carrying capacity (and reproduction drops to 0.3) to a situation in which deer are below biological carrying capacity. In other words, when a population moves from a denuded landscape to one of ample forage. In these situations, deer reproduction may increase to normal levels. Reducing a deer herd that has not reached biological carrying capacity will not enable the remaining deer to go into a “super reproductive” state. The IDNR estimates that deer in Bloomington now are probably reproducing at a 1.5‐2.0 rate, and removing deer will not accelerate that rate.

Deer Seasons, Licenses and Equipment, Deer Regulations, Indiana Hunting and Trapping Guide

Urban deer zones give archery hunters opportunities to harvest deer in defined urban deer zones, in addition to statewide bag limits. Hunters must obtain permission from landowners to hunt on their property. An urban deer zone license is needed for each deer taken.

Deer: Sterilization, City of Bloomington

The IDNR does not support this method in free-ranging contexts.
This method does not eliminate current damage, as population remains; however, it does stem population growth. Higher mortality rates have been observed in sterilized deer; home range size and movement tend to be similar between sterilized and non-sterilized animals (Skinner 2007).

Approved Hidden Valley Lake 2014/2015 Deer Cull Program

HVL will schedule a flyover with the first snow fall to count the remaining deer. If the fly over concludes that the remaining deer herd exceeds 120 deer, the HVL POA shall apply for a special IDNR Fish and Wildlife Permit to extend the culling season and reduce the herd to a maximum of 100 deer and to request certain exceptions to the standard bow hunting regulations. One antlered deer may be taken by each hunter during the 2014 cull season provided that hunter has culled at least 2 non-antlered deer.

St. Joseph County Parks

Links to news and information on deer management within the county parks

Deer Management Program, Eagle Creek Park, Indianapolis website

With the goal of preserving Eagle Creek Park for future generations to enjoy, the City is implementing a long-term deer management plan to diminish the negative impact of an overabundance of white-tailed deer on the park and surrounding areas.
Eagle Creek Park was closed November 28 – November 30 for the initial phase of the Deer Management Program. Wounded Warrior Outdoors utilized 23 participants, 11 of which were local disabled veterans. The activities were executed safely and successfully reduced the herd by 142 deer (31 bucks and 111 does). The 4,800 pounds of venison yielded will be donated to Gleaners Food Bank of Indiana​.

Urban Indiana

Even in Indiana, they refer to a Michigan study on deer reproductive rates:
Deer populations in general have a remarkable ability to grow due to their high reproductive potential. In the fenced George Reserve in Michigan, a population of six deer grew to 222 deer in seven years.
Mating behavior of deer begins in mid-October, peaks in early November, and can last through December and occasionally into January. In areas where nutritious forage is available and plentiful, fawns typically born in May or June who achieve weights of approximately 75-80 lbs can become reproductively active in December. In Indiana, it is not uncommon for most adult does to have two and sometimes three fawns each year.

  • Page 23 of this report provides a good overview of costs and effectiveness of different deer management solutions.


City of Delafield Deer Management Program 2018, Delafield, WI, 2018

To prevent irreparable damage to the ecosystems in Delafield and to prevent significant injury and illness to persons or damage to property, be it resolved that the City of Delafield should establish a “Social Carrying Capacity” goal to reduce the Whitetail deer population to 10-19 deer square mile of Deer Range in the City by the year 2023. It is recommended that the city establish a Deer Management Committee to implement the following plan
. This plan shall serve as a guide to safely and effectively reduce the herd over the next five years and then maintain a manageable deer herdthereafter.

Eau Claire urban deer population decreases by 10 percent, WQOW.com, April 7, 2017

The city parks department said since the urban deer management plan was implemented in 2015, the number of deer within city limits has dropped by 10 percent. Last year, the city held a managed hunt on the City Wells property for youth and disabled hunters, which staff said was a success, cutting the deer population in that area almost in half. The city plans to hold another hunt again this fall. The city attributes a large part of the decrease to relaxed bow hunting regulations within city limits set by the state.

Controversial antlerless deer regulation takes center stage in Waupaca County, Journal Sentinal, March 26, 2016

The CDAC members voted for antlerless-only regulations for its 2016 deer hunts. If implemented, hunters would be allowed to shoot only antlerless deer this year in all bow and gun seasons in one of the state’s top deer hunting counties. Not a single buck allowed. Think about that for a minute. The goal, obviously, is to take more female deer and reduce the reproductive capacity of the herd.

Deer hunts slated for city well field, Leader-Telegram, April 3, 2016

Herd management plan permits sharpshooters, youth and disabled bowhunting on city site in ’16-’17 season

City of Oshkosh Wildlife Management Program

Deer presence in Oshkosh has contributed to complaints of nuisance, health (Lyme disease, chronic wasting disease, etc.), safety concerns and plant species eradication. The increasing population of deer raises concern in the city over increased deer/traffic collisions and further destruction of property.
Due to the abundance of complaints expressed to the city by residents, Oshkosh seeks to annually monitor the deer population in sections of the city. There have been three (3) distinct deer herds identified during ongoing discussions.

Deer, County of MilwaukeeHaving invested hundreds of thousands of dollars and decades of work in the Boerner Gardens, we now need to control the deer that threaten it. The goal of the deer management plan is to keep deer an integral, not dominant, segment of the park’s natural communities.

Altoona changes regulations to make deer hunting easier within city limits, City of Altoona, Sept 16, 2014

Altoona used to require that residents have at least a 1-acre parcel to hunt on and have permission from their neighbors. But when the Altoona City Council approved its new regulations in August, it decided permission from neighbors and a minimum lot size are no longer hunting requirements. However, trespass laws still require permission to go on a neighbor’s land to retrieve a deer.
The new law requires that arrows from bows or crossbows be shot toward the ground from an elevated position, so if the hunter misses, the arrow hits the ground. The law also allows municipalities to limit how close hunters can be to neighboring buildings. Like Eau Claire, Altoona set that distance at 50 yards.

2014 Urban Deer Management Plan, Onalaska, WI

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the City Council, to the extent necessary, grants an exception or permission regarding the prohibition against bow and arrows provided in Section 11-2-3 and Section 11-2-4 of the Code of Ordinances of the City of Onalaska to the participants in the City of Onalaska Urban Deer Management Plan.
Link to site with additional information

2015 Urban Deer Management Plan & Appendixes, City of Onalaska


The City will continue to advocate the use of repellents and barriers, such as fencing, to protect residential plantings from deer damage, as there will always be deer in the City. However, these methods cannot be used as the sole means of longer term control because of the continued immigration of deer into the City and because of the rapid reproduction rate. Therefore, long term control of deer will involve continued, additional removal of deer using sharpshooting as the means to maintain the population.
More information


Deer Management Zone (DMZ) Hunts, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 2016

At this time, we have 18 communities and 25 state and county parks conducting these controlled hunts across Iowa.

Controlled Bowhunt Hunter Requirements, Polk County Conservation, 2016

The bowhunt is limited to antlerless deer only, and will take place from Sept. 19, 2015 – Jan. 10, 2016 (each organization may adjust this season). This bowhunt is being held in response to continued growth in urban deer population that has resulted in damage to natural vegetation, increased deer/vehicle collisions, and damage to private landscaping.

Urbandale Urban Controlled Bow Hunt, City of Urbanville, IA

The Controlled Bow Hunt was initiated in 1998 due to overpopulation of deer within the city. The controlled bow hunt has had no safety incidents over the past 17 years. The participant hunters must abide by IDNR rules and regulations and also adhere to very stringent safety rules such as shooting arrows at a downward angle from a tree stand and no more than 75 feet. There is also an inviolate zone of 100 feet from trails or streets and the requirement of a signed waiver from a neighboring landowner to hunt within 200 feet from their home. The hunters must acquire a certificate of completion of an IDNR compliant bow hunter safety course and pass an annual proficiency test before they are allowed to hunt within the city. The hunt is also administered by the Urbandale Police Department to ensure the safety and integrity of the program.

What is the Urban Deer Bowhunt Program?, Polk County Conservation

The population of the white-tailed deer in certain areas of Polk County has already reached a point where natural areas are being damaged and biodiversity threatened. The negative impact on people of deer-vehicle collisions and destruction of landscaping increases as deer populations grow.
The Polk County Deer Task Force believes that management plans must be put in place to control, and in some areas reduce, the size of the deer herd in urban and suburban areas of Polk County. The alternative of “doing nothing” and allowing deer herds to grow unchecked is not acceptable for it would lead to increasingly negative consequences for our natural areas and for the people of Polk County.
The Polk County Deer Task Force is committed to maintaining and preserving the white-tailed deer population in Polk County at ecologically-acceptable levels.

Urban Deer Management, Council Bluffs, 2014-2015

Link to Bowhunting Guidelines and Application Permit

Urban Deer Hunt, Cedar Rapids 2015

The 2015-2016 Urban Deer Hunt will be held from Saturday, September 19, 2015 through Saturday, January 10, 2016. The City of Cedar Rapids continued its annual Urban Deer Hunt for the 2015-2016 season as authorized by Resolution No. 0762-09-07 (signed September 5, 2007). Hunting permits are required.

Deer Management Zone (DMZ) Hunts, Iowa DNR

At this time, we have 18 communities and 25 state and county parks conducting these controlled hunts across Iowa.

2014-2015 Cedar Rapids Urban Management Program Hunting Rules, July 2014

The Cedar Rapids Urban Deer Management Program concluded the 2014-2015 bow hunt season January 10, 2015. A total of 74 hunters qualified for the urban bow hunt. Of the 74 hunters that were eligible for the bow hunt, there were 37 hunters successful in harvesting at least one deer.

Ames, Iowa

The Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) has worked with the City of Ames to establish an urban deer management plan. The goal of this plan is to obtain a deer population that is acceptable to most Ames citizens. The City of Ames Urban Deer Task Force considers the number of complaints, deer carcass pickups, and information from an annual aerial survey.

City of Davenport, Urban Deer Hunt: 2014-2015

To participate in this deer management zone hunt: Each hunter must have completed a DNR Hunter Education Course.

Deer Management In Ottumwa, City of Ottumwa, Iowa

Since 2005, a total of 703 deer have been safely harvested from within the city limits. This year the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the City of Ottumwa will issue in-city hunting tags for 300 antlerless deer. Removing female deer from the herd helps stabilize the population; a critical part of successful deer herd management. If does are not removed, a deer population has the potential to double in size every year.

Deer Management Program, City of Dubuque

Includes information on Chronic Wasting Disease

City of Dubuque Deer Management Program 2015-2016, Brochure

The Environmental Stewardship Advisory Commission and the Dubuque City Council recommend the following management goals:
1. Limit deer populations within defined areas in the city of Dubuque below 20 deer per square mile;
2. Provide public education regarding deer, their habitats, impact on natural habitats, deterrents and population management, cost of property damage if nothing is done, and potential health risks resulting from a large deer population to citizens of Dubuque and to deer.
3. Encourage eligible property owners to allow qualified deer hunters on their property.
4. Discourage citizens from feeding deer

White-Tailed Deer, Forest Preserve District of DuPage County

When the deer-management program started in 1993, deer had consumed much of the vegetation within their reach in several forest preserves. Ecologists established small, experimental plots at these preserves and installed fences to prevent deer from reaching the vegetation inside each plot. Inside the fenced areas, vegetation grew thick; outside, the deer grazed plants down to the ground.

Council to decide on feeding deer inside city limits, Argus Leader, Nov 4, 2014

After a public hearing Tuesday evening, the council is set to vote on a ban against deer feeding within city limits.
A special archery season already is underway to control the deer population north of Rice Street. Meanwhile, the city is preparing a management plan for southeastern neighborhoods along the Big Sioux River.

Urban Deer Hunting, City of Marshalltown

The Urban Deer Bow Hunting Program is a cooperative effort between the City of Marshalltown and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR). The purpose of the program is for deer management within the city limits.


Deer Management, City of Town and Country

On January 22, 2017 the latest phase of the City’s deer management program concluded with the culling of 225 deer. The program was authorized by City ordinance and the Missouri Department of Conservation and was once again conducted by White Buffalo, Inc., which is a nonprofit organization that is focused on the conservation of native species and ecosystems. All of the meat was processed and donated to the St. Louis Area Foodbank through the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Share the Harvest program.

2015 Urban Deer Hunting , Missouri Dept of Conservation

Hunting on conservation areas in the Urban Zones

Urban Deer Bow Hunting Rules and Regulations, City of Mexico, MO

hunter must be 21 years of age and must be elevated a minimum of 10 feet from the ground when discharging a bow in the act of hunting. Hunters will not be able to discharge a bow and arrow within 180 feet of a dwelling, a building or structure used for the assembly of people, a street, a highway, park or property line.

Deer Management Report, Presented to the Board of Aldermen By Gary Hoelzer, June 30, 2011

Problems associated with excessive deer populations in the urban environment are not unique to
Town and Country and other West St. Louis County communities. The rationale for local government involvement in deer management is clearly evident due to the adverse impact to the environment, property owners, and the increasing number of vehicle crashes nationwide.

FAQ about Urban White-Tailed Deer, Missouri Dept of Conservation


North Dakota

Fargo’s 11th annual urban deer hunt sets new record, KFGO, May 12, 201749 deer were harvested in Fargo’s 11th annual 2016-2017 urban deer hunt. That’s a new record. The seasons run from the end of August through the end of January, in approved locations along the Red River, much of it park district property. Wittlesey says without the special season, the urban deer herd would grow out of control. Fargo started the bow hunt to curb the deer population in 2006 in response to complaints from property owners about damage and other problems caused by the deer population.

South Dakota

>Hunting in South Dakota: 5 Things to Know About Urban Deer Hunting in Cities and Suburbs, Newsmax, June 4, 2015

This is a delicate subject for many residents of South Dakota. One contributing factor is the issue of citizen safety. As of now, only Sioux Falls, Rapid City, and Pierre have permitted deer population management through hunting.

Rapid City Deer Management Program, Parks and Rec, Revised 2014

The 1996 Rapid City Deer Herd Management Program, with a detailed plan for baiting and shooting deer at carefully selected sites, was prepared and presented to the City Council by the committee
formed that year. In 2012 the Urban Wildlife Committee revised the Rapid City Deer Management Plan. This revised plan better defines problems with the deer population in specific areas of the city, includes additional strategies for deer management, and outlines the current program for distributing the harvested deer.

Deer Management – Sioux Falls, South Dakota, City of Sioux Falls

Every effort will be made to target only does. Any buck deer, with or without antlers, will be reported to GF&P as soon as possible. Detailed log entries will be made for every deer harvested. The deer will be harvested by the most humane means possible.


Urban Deer Hunt Protocol, Olathe, KS

Urban Deer Bow/Arrow Hunting

Deer Hunter Information Packet Management, City of Leavenworth

The City’s Deer Management program utilizes certified bow hunters to eliminate deer with the goals of decreasing property damage and vehicular accidents involving deer.

Deer Damage Control Permits, Kansas Dept of Parks, Wildlife and Tourism

The Bill of Rights of the Kansas Constitution provides landowners with rights to protect their property. These rights may be applied to deer damaging crops. Both court decisions and Attorney General Opinions have shown that these rights are not without limitations. The landowner must demonstrate that deer are causing substantial damage to property.

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