Exclosures

Design and Site Selection for Deer exclosures , Matthai Botanical Gardens, 2016Deer herbivory is altering the vegetative composition in the Arb, but there are no quantified data measuring the effects of these changes. We will develop useful to begin a long-term study of deer herbivory in the Nichols
Arboretum.

Deer Exclosures, Oakland Township Parks and RecreationTo explore the effects deer have upon the prairie, deer exclosures have been placed at prairie sites along the Paint Creek Trail. The exclosures are designed to keep deer out of a small fenced area. When vegetation within the exclosure is compared to that outside the exclosure, the effects of their browsing may be seen.

Long-term deer exclusion has complex effects on a suburban forest understory, USGS, 2016Herbivory by deer is one of the leading biotic disturbances on forest understories (i.e., herbs, small shrubs, and small tree seedlings). A large body of research has reported declines in height, abundance, and reproductive capacity of forbs and woody plants coupled with increases in abundance of graminoids, ferns, and exotic species due to deer herbivory. Less clear is the extent to which (and the direction in which) deer alter herbaceous layer diversity, where much of the plant diversity in a forest occurs. We examined the effect of 15 y of deer exclusion on the understory of a suburban hardwood forest in Connecticut exposed to decades of intensive herbivory by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We compared species richness (at subplot and plot scale), individual species and life form group abundance (% cover), and community composition between grazed and exclosure plots, as well as between mesic and wet soil blocks. Forb cover was more than twice as abundant in exclosure as in grazed plots, whereas sedge (Carex spp.) cover was 28 times more abundant, and exotic species cover generally higher in grazed than in exclosure plots. Native and exotic species richness were both higher in grazed than exclosure plots at the subplot scale, and native herbaceous richness was higher in grazed plots at both spatial scales. In contrast, native shrub richness increased with deer exclusion at the plot scale. Our results suggest that deer exclusion had contrasting effects on species richness, depending on plant life form, but that overall richness of both exotic and native plants declined with deer exclusion. In addition, site heterogeneity remained an important driver of vegetation dynamics even in the midst of high deer densities.

Pittsburgh’s suburbs a perfect sanctuary for deer, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Nov 14, 2013On a hill above North Park Lake, chain-link fences enclose several small plots barely big enough to park a car. Inside, saplings reach for sunlight above leafy bushes and new plants push through the leaf-covered ground. Outside the fences, foliage is sparse — some spots are nearly barren.
They’re not garden plots. They’re deer exclosures, placed there by state Game Commission Wildlife Conservation officer Gary Fujak as a wildlife management demonstration. The exclosures are there for “anyone who wants [to] see what this park would look like if it weren’t for all the deer,” he said.

Deer Exclosures, A comprehensive practical guide., DeerFacts.org, 2009A deer exclosure is an area, usually of forest floor, surrounded by fencing that keeps deer out, but allows virtually every other animal to enter. An exclosure can show effects in just a year or two, but displays its maximum effect within about six years, depending on local placement and conditions. It may be expected to remain in place for 10-30 years

Deer Exclosures, JugBay Wetlands SanctuaryToday forests are changing because old senescent trees are not being replaced by young trees. Tree seedlings that would grow to mature trees are being eaten by deer. Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary’s woods have been suffering for many years from over-browsing by white-tailed deer. The seedlings and saplings of hardwood tree species such as oak, hickory and red maple are scarce. Wildflowers such as spring beauties, orchids, bloodroot and other species have also become rare. A browse line is evident in many areas of the Sanctuary.

Deer Exclosures, Vassar FarmsOverabundant deer have been shown to negatively impact biodiversity, cause changes in species composition, and alter the structure of the forest. Deer exclosures are a commonly used to isolate the effect that deer are having on a forest.

Deer Exclosure: Keeping deer away from nature’s salad bar, Minnetonka, MNNow that many acres in the Minnetonka Park system have had buckthorn and other invasive plant species removed, a test plot study has been established to monitor the ability of selected native plants to become re-established in areas previously occupied by non-native, invasive plants.

The Effect of Deer Browse on Sundial Lupine: Implications for Frosted Elfins, Northeastern Naturalist, 2012The effect of White-tailed Deer on Lupinus perennis (Sundial Lupine) was quantified for a site in Worcester County, MD. The reproductive output of Lupine protected by deer exclosures was compared with Lupine that received no protection from deer. Lupine in the exclosures had a higher likelihood of producing seed pods and produced a greater number of seed pods per infl orescence.

Deer exclosures reveal woodland peril, Fairfield Citizen, May 28, 2010With over-abundant deer ravaging local woodlands and gardens, scientists and park managers are building fenced, deer exclosures throughout deer-dense Fairfield and New Haven Counties for study and public recognition of the plague to our ecosystem.

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